sábado, 25 de agosto de 2007

¿Cómo afrontar una entrevista grupal? .

Fuente: Portafolio.com (Colombia)
Autor: Hermógenes Ardila
Fecha: 31 de Julio de 2007


Pautas para destacarse frente a los demás candidatos durante una prueba de selección colectiva.



¿A qué le tiene usted más temor: a la entrevista individual o grupal? Pues las dos son definitivas en el proceso de reclutamiento de personal y ningún candidato, por curtido que sea en el arte de superar las complejas pruebas que utilizan las empresas, debería ignorar sus pautas y procedimientos.




De la entrevista individual se ha hablado mucho: pueden ser abiertas, cerradas o libres, y buscan conocer en profundidad al candidato, su historia de vida, objetivos de carrera, expectativas e intereses.




Ahí caben todo tipo de preguntas, dependiendo la clase de organización y el cargo a ocupar y, aunque en ellas es posible detectar algunos rasgos de personalidad, no siempre reflejan la dimensión total de los comportamientos colectivos.




Hoy en día, los departamentos de recursos humanos, los cazadores de talentos y los sicólogos organizacionales utilizan con frecuencia los encuentros grupales para seleccionar, porque permiten percibir directamente las competencias conductuales, es decir de cómo hacer bien el trabajo.




“En la entrevista grupal se citan a varios postulantes para que a medida que se desarrolla vayan dejando de manifiesto su personalidad”, afirma el catedrático mexicano Darío Rodríguez, quien explica que esta técnica de reclutamiento puede aportar mucha información sobre el potencial de los aspirantes.




Características principales
Las preguntas se refieren a temas que no se encuentran dirigidos a una persona en particular, sino que son planteados a todo el grupo, que en consecuencia es el que debe resolverlos y argumentarlos ante el entrevistador, que generalmente está acompañado de varios expertos.




El resultado es una dinámica colectiva que permite conseguir respuestas disímiles y complementarias al problema propuesto.




Al trabajar casos de manera grupal y al ejecutar ejercicios de interacción se obtiene información valiosa sobre:




• Capacidad de trabajo en equipo

• Madurez emocional

• Empatía

• Solución de diferencias

• Sentido común

• Toma de decisiones bajo presión




“No se trata de una relación de uno a uno (entrevistador-entrevistado), sino de una conversación entre varias personas, en que el seleccionador es una de ellas, cuya misión se reduce a dirigir el encuentro conduciendo al grupo mediante una pauta amplia”, dice el catedrático Darío Rodríguez.




Es posible que al principio los candidatos, que deben ser entre tres y seis personas para poderlos evaluar eficientemente, estén nerviosos, manifiesten sensaciones de timidez o que alguien intente tomarse la vocería obstruyendo la posibilidad de intervención de los demás.




En términos generales, la entrevista debe ser conducida por el seleccionador, que deberá desempeñar un papel semejante al del catalizador de una reacción química, señala Darío Rodríguez, promotor de la investigación ‘Diagnóstico Organizacional’ del grupo editor Alfaomega de México.




En otras palabras, el entrevistador debe indicar los temas sobre los que necesita obtener información, dirigir la participación de los integrantes, tratando que todos tengan la oportunidad de hacer su aporte, tomar notas tanto de las opiniones como de las respuestas y hacer los cambios de preguntas.




Afloran debilidades y fortalezas

La experiencia indica que a medida de que se formulan respuestas se complementan los planteamientos de uno o varios aspirantes, se especifican los contenidos, se hacen aclaraciones y se consiguen resultados diferentes a los que se podrían tener través de una entrevista individual.




Elmer Enrique Reyes, quien estuvo a cargo de un equipo de expertos para la convocatoria de docentes encomendada por la Secretaría de Educación de Bogotá, señala que esta técnica es muy efectiva para obtener datos sobre la personalidad y potencial de los candidatos.




“En el proceso se pueden apreciar muchas debilidades y fortalezas de los aspirantes a un puesto de trabajo, máxime cuando se trata de hacer selecciones masivas”, precisa que se tuvieron en cuenta factores como ser sobresaliente, aceptable e insuficiente.




La entrevista grupal, señala Reyes, fue importante porque se pudieron observar una serie de características:




• Actitud autocrítica

• Innovación

• Reconocimiento de contextos

• Sentido de pertenencia

• Adaptabilidad

• Disposición frente al cambio

• Comunicación efectiva

• Toma de decisiones

• Planeación del trabajo

• Respeto

• Equidad




Aunque esta es una técnica que tiene muchos adeptos en el sector privado, la Comisión Nacional del Servicio Civil (Cnsc) la exige y, dependiendo el nivel de las convocatorias, les otorga un puntaje determinado.




Pautas durante una entrevista grupal

• No trate de monopolizar la conversación

• Permita que otros intervengan y no los interrumpa

• Sea respetuoso de las afirmaciones de los demás, así no las comparta

• No se quede callado. En caso de no dominar el tema planteado, pregunte

• Analice con cuidado la pregunta, para que no desvíe las respuestas, toda vez que ello podría denotar falta de concentración.

• No juzgue negativamente las opiniones de los demás

• Evite frases ofensivas o chistes flojos

• Asuma la entrevista con todo el rigor profesional

• No hable mal de situaciones negativas sucedidas en trabajos anteriores cuando trate de reforzar sus argumentos.

• Conserve los buenos modales




Hermógenes Ardila

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